Antibodies for Exosome Research

Firstly described in the early 80’s, exosomes are small vesicles of 40-150 nm in diameter, a comparable size of a viral particle, having an endocytic origin and released by all cell types into extracellular space before entering into circulation. These vesicles, containing cytosol, come from invagination and budding from the limiting membrane of late endosomes.

As research has progressed it has become evident exosomes are important in various biological functions and especially in intercellular communications. Their lipid bilayer membrane contributes to their high stability in circulation and gives them a status of a natural carrier for biological information through proteins, lipids, DNA and RNAs (mRNAs, microRNAs and other non-coding RNAs). By exposing cell type-specific adhesion receptors or ligands, exosomes can interact with specific cells and deliver their “signals,” including bioactive lipids, cytokines, growth factors, receptors, and genetic materials. 

Cell-to-cell communication has a crucial role in different steps of tumor progression and exosomes have become increasingly studied for their implication in several biological processes associated with tumor initiation, progression as well as in metastasis enhancement. Exosomes could also be involved in the immunosuppressive effects of immune cell activity, helping cancer cells to escape lymphocyte immune-surveillance and to keep the immune system under control [Anderson HC (2010) Lab Invest 90:1549–1557]. It has been described that exosomes are associated to resistance mechanisms by transferring proteins involved in resistance from one cell to another.

Exomes are naturally present in all body fluids, biocompatible and biodegradable and offer potential applications in cancer therapies as natural carriers for therapeutic molecules [Bastos N (2017) Semin Cell Dev Biol. 9521(16)30479-7.]

Therefore with their potent involvement in cancer and the potential therapeutic application, it is important to accurately identify and characterize these vesicles. Ultrastructural studies, western blot, and mass spectrometry analysis of exosomes from different sources have allowed the distinction between commonly expressed proteins, as well as cell type-specific proteins. It is a consensus now that tetraspanins (CD81, CD63, and CD9) as well as Epcam are the four main markers signifying exosomes presence. Other proteins, mainly adhesion molecules could also be used as markers such as CD54 (ICAM-1), CD146 (L1-CAM), CD44 (H-CAM), CD58 (LFA-3) or CD82. Depending on the cell origin, exosomes express markers linked to the “mother” cells such as class I and II MHC, CD80, CD86, Fas ligand, MICA/B, galectin-3, heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) or perforin and granzyme…etc [Taylor, D (2011) Semin Immunopathol 33: 441–454].


Diaclone offers high quality monoclonal antibodies in support of research and the characterization of exosomes:


Specificity Clone Isotype Azide Free Purified FITC PE
CD9  TS9  IgG1  857.750.000      
CD63  TS63  IgG1  857.770.000      
CD81  TS81  IgG2a  857.780.000       
Epcam B-E54 IgG1  857.830.000 857.833.020    
CD80  MEM-233  IgG1    853.253.020  853.251.010  853.252.010 
CD86  B-S7 IgG1  853.830.000      
CD178  B-R17  IgG1  853.070.000 853.073.020     
MICA  B-N31  IgG1  855.380.000      
MICA  B-Z26 IgG2a  855.370.000 855.373.020    
MICB  B-D55  IgG1  855.530.000      
MICB  B-D54  IgG1  855.520.000   855.521.010  855.522.010
Perforin  B-E48 IgG2b  853.640.000      
Perforin  B-C48 IgG1  853.620.000      
Perforin  B-D48  IgG1  854.950.000  854.953.020  854.951.010  854.952.010 
Galectin-3 B-S43 IgG2a  855.610.000 855.613.020    
Galectin-3 B-E53 IgG1  855.620.000      
CD54  B-H17  IgG1  852.690.000 852.693.020     
CD146     Coming soon !      
CD58  B-L28  IgG1  854.630.000 854.633.020  854.631.010  854.632.010 
CD44  B-F24  IgG1  852.600.000  852.603.020  852.601.010   
CD44  B-R8 IgG1  853.790.000      
CD63  TS63  IgG1  857.770.000      
CD82  TS82b  IgG1  857.790.000      

Why Diaclone ?


  • High Specificity & Precision – detect both natural and recombinant proteins with no cross reactivity to related proteins
  • Reliability & Consistency – robust validation and manufactured to ISO9001:2008 quality standards


  • The monoclonal kits and antibodies produced by Diaclone are used by many companies in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry as well as by numerous public platforms
  • Technical support provided by scientists, with 24-hour response guaranteed
  • A dedicated sales team
  • Antibody development process and kits fully controlled